Back in the Day
The isthmus formed around 2.8 million years ago, separating the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and causing the creation of the Gulf Stream.
Panama becomes the Bridge of the Americas.
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa heard of the South Sea from natives while sailing along the Caribbean coast.
On September 25th, 1513 he saw the Pacific.
The separation of Panama from Colombia was an event that occurred on November 3, 1903, after the Thousand Days War, which triggered the proclamation of the Republic of Panama.
The new Republic of Panama granted the USA perpetual rights to the canal, and a wide area of eight kilometers on each side of it, in exchange for a sum of $ 10 million and an annual income of $ 250,000
Since its inauguration on August 15, 1914, the canal has managed to shorten maritime communication in time and distance, boosting commercial and economic exchange by providing a short and relatively cheap route of transit between the two oceans,
On September 7, 1977, President Jimmy Carter and the Head of Government of Panama, Omar Torrijos, signed the Torrijos-Carter Treaty, which restored full control of the canal to Panama on December 31, 1999.
On December 15, 1989, Panama under the dictatorship of General Manuel Antonio Noriega had declared itself in a state of war against the United States.
On December 20, 1989 the US Army. USA invaded Panama, capturing General Noriega who was brought before the US courts, marking the end of the military dictatorship in Panama
The 1989 US invasion of Panama was called "Operation Just Cause"
White represents the peace and harmony with which one must govern.
Blue symbolizes the purity and honesty of the people who represented the values of the conservative party.
Red represents the liberal party, also indicates love for the country with the authority and law necessary to rule.
Meaning of the right eye:
The left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics.
The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a neotropical species of eagle.
It is the largest and most powerful raptor found in the rainforest
The "Flower of the Holy Spirit" - In Panama this species has been abundant in the very humid mountain forests. It is found as an epiphyte plant on the trunks of trees covered with moss at elevation of about 1,100 m. In its natural habitat, this orchid grows near the ground level of mature forests.
We finally achieved victory
in the happy field of union;
with blazing blazes of glory
the new nation is illuminated.
It is necessary to cover with a veil
Calvary and the cross from the past;
and that adorns the blue of your sky
of concord the splendid light.
Progress caresses your lares
to the beat of a sublime song;
You see both seas roar at your feet
that give way to your noble mission.
(Repeats the chorus)
On your flowery ground
to the kisses of the warm earth,
Fragore warriors finished;
only brotherly love reigns.
Go ahead, pick and shovel,
to work without further delay;
and we will be like this and gala,
of this fertile world of Columbus.
The political-administrative division of the Republic of Panama comprises 10 provinces.
5 indigenous districts (3 of them at the provincial level)
Approx. 22% of Panama Land Territory
81 districts (or municipalities), and 679 townships (corregimientos).
The Republic of Panama is a large isthmic strip with a total surface of 75,845 km², and 2,210 km² of territorial waters, totaling 77,626.7 km²
Most of the Panamanian territory is made up of lowlands (70%). Most of the Panamanian population lives in lowlands. They belong to this group; The southern lowlands and plains, the hills and plains of the Central Isthmus, the eastern depressions, the lowlands and the northern plains.
30% are Highlands. These lands are made up of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. To this group belong: Barú Volcano, The Central Cordillera, The Northern Eastern Arc, The Southern Eastern Arc, Massifs and Southern Volcanic Chains.
Rice, corn, coffee, banana, and sugar cane
Panama has 2 main axes from which most of the secondary highways and roads come off: a longitudinal axis, formed by the Pan-American Highway that extends from Paso-Canoas on the border with Costa Rica to Yaviza, in the Province of Darién and that is interrupted only by the so-called Darién Gap.
The other axis is the Trans-isthmic Highway that connects the cities of Panama and Colon, as well as the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, whose approximate length is 81 km.
The rivers of Panama are divided according to the point where they flow: Some flow into the Atlantic Ocean and others flow into the Pacific Ocean. The most extensive river is the Chucunaque River with 231 km located in the Darien Province. The Tuira River is the largest river in the country and the second longest (230 km).
Panama’s 76 protected areas cover close to two million hectares (5 million acres) of the country, some 25 percent of Panama’s total landmass. Many of these areas are part of the national park system, which includes 13 national and marine parks, and one international park.
Panama has one of the most advanced airport infrastructures in Latin America.
Tocumen International Airport is an important hub for connections to North and South America.
Solar energy is inexhaustible, it is clean and it is the cheapest in the world. Every hour, the sun throws more energy onto the earth - in the form of light and heat - enough to supply the global needs of a full year.
Panama, in its National Energy Plan 2015-2050, aims for 70% of the generation of electrical energy in the year 2050 to come from renewable sources, especially solar and wind energy that, in addition to being clean, produce savings.
Public Power emanates from the people and is exercised through three Organs: Legislative; Executive and Judicial, harmonized in separation, united in cooperation and limited by the classic system of brakes and counterweights
The Panama Council of Ministers, also known as the cabinet, is the country's executive body made up of the President of the Republic, the ministers, and the directors of the main government institutions. The seat of the council is the Palacio de las Garzas.
The National Assembly is the unicameral body that exercises the legislative power in Panama, it is made up of 71 deputies elected by direct popular vote for a period of 5 years.
The judicial body is held by the Supreme Court of Justice, as well as minor courts such as the Accusatory Criminal System.
The Public Ministry is responsible for the criminal investigations that must be shown in court hearings. The magistrates of the Supreme Court of Justice last 10 years in office, the President of the Republic appoints the magistrates and it is the National Assembly that elects them.
The Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic is the highest supervisory entity in Panama, autonomous and constitutional in rank, charged with exercising the control of legality of acts of the Public Administration, supervising the entry and investment of fiscal, municipal, and municipal funds. the other organisms and services that determine the laws, examine and judge the accounts of the people who are in charge of fiscal and municipal assets, keep the general accounts of the Nation and carry out the other functions entrusted by law.
The objective of the TE is "To achieve electoral, registration and identification excellence, through education, training and permanent technological innovation, to provide efficient services for the improvement of democracy and the rights of citizens, in a State de derecho
function is to exclusively direct the investigation of the acts constituting the crime, those that determine the punishable participation and those that prove the innocence of the accused and, where appropriate, exercise public criminal action in the manner provided by law; likewise, it is responsible for adopting measures to protect victims and witnessesIts .
Guarantee to the entire population, with a gender perspective, access to comprehensive care, through public health services, humanized at all levels of intervention, based on the primary care strategy, and the development of stewardship functions , management and transformation, prioritizing equity, efficiency and quality with warmth during care, ensuring transparency processes in the use of resources and the development of health actions with citizen participation, in the construction of conditions necessary for the social production of health ”.
Ensure an educational system of excellence, based on values, with equity and responsibility, supported by the best material, financial and professional resources that favor the obtaining of solid humanistic, technological, scientific and life skills knowledge, in order to contribute to training Integral and permanent integration of people and the development of the country.
Give customers a reason to do business with you.
Formulate economic and social policy, administer and provide the resources for the execution of the Government's plans and programs, promoting the greater well-being of the population.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Panama is the entity in charge of directing and coordinating Panama's foreign policy and diplomatic relations, it works in coordination with Panamanian ambassadors and consuls with accreditation in different countries and international organizations.
The National Police of Panama is an armed body of a civil nature, attached to the Ministry of Public Security, in charge of maintaining and guaranteeing public order at the national level.
The National Border Service (SENAFRONT), is a specialized police institution of a military nature, whose main mission is to protect the land and river borders of the Republic of Panama, as well as other functions inherent to police work in the country's border towns.
Around 6,000 soldiers
The National Aeronaval Service of Panama, also called SENAN (acronym for the National Aeronaval Service), is a branch of the Public Force of the Republic of Panama responsible for conducting air and naval operations. Its main function is to "Perform the protection, surveillance, security and air defense and jurisdictional maritime areas of the Republic of Panama."
As of July 2019, SENAN has approximately 4,000 soldiers in activity, with 24 ships and approximately 25 aircraft.
The "SPI" is in charge of providing protection to the Panamanian authorities, such as the President of the Republic, the ministers, ex-presidents and the ex-Vice Presidents in charge of the Presidency of the Republic, as well as contributing to the maintenance of internal public order, peace, citizen security, protecting public spaces and buildings.
Guillermo Endara Galimany, winner of the 1989 elections that were annulled by General Noriega, assumes the office of president and restores constitutional order. On February 10, 1990, the government of President Endara issued an executive decree reorganizing the police force.
Guillermo David Endara Galimany (Panama City, May 12, 1936 - September 28, 2009) was a Panamanian politician and lawyer
In 1976, he was chosen by General Omar Torrijos to be Minister of Finance and Treasury. Then in March 1979, he was one of the founders of the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), of which he was appointed in 1982 as secretary general. He became the 33rd President of Panama
She became the first woman and 34th President of Panama. During the first years of her administration she had to face a strong economic slowdown promoted by the withdrawal of the resident population in the Panama Canal zone in compliance with the Torrijos Carter Treaties.
On December 31, 1999, 22 years after the signing of the Torrijos-Carter treaty, the Republic of Panama assumed full control of the Panama Canal
Martín Erasto Torrijos Espino (Chitré, Herrera Province, July 18, 1963) is a Panamanian politician. He was the 35th. Constitutional President of the Republic of Panama He is the son of General Omar Torrijos Herrera.
Ricardo Alberto Martinelli Berrocal (Panama City, Panama; March 11, 1952) is a Panamanian businessman and politician. He became the 36th Constitutional President of the Republic of Panama
Juan Carlos Varela Rodríguez (Panama City; December 12, 1963), is a Panamanian engineer, businessman, and politician.He became the 37th President of Panama
Laurentino Cortizo Cohen (Panama City, January 30, 1953) is a Panamanian politician, administrator, and rancher. He became the 38th President of Panama
The Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) is a center-left political party in Panama. It is the party with the largest number of adherents in Panama, with a total of 506,920 members (March 2018)
Its founder was Omar Torrijos Herrera, who was head of government of Panama from 1968 until his death in 1981
Cambio Democrático (CD) is a Panamanian political party founded in 1998 and the second largest party in the country with 359,430 members (February 2016).
The Panameñista Party is a nationalist political party in Panama, being the third largest party by number of adherents with 256,138 members (February 2016) and has governed the country three times since the fall of the military regime in 1989.
Uniting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans - while being the Bridge of North and South America
Truly an amazing location - full of Bio-diversity.
Panama's economy is one of the most stable in America. Among the main activities are financial, tourism and logistics services, which represent 75% of GDP
Panama depends mainly on its conglomerate of transport and logistics services oriented towards world trade, whose epicenter is the Panama Canal. Container transshipment ports, free trade zones, railways and the largest air passenger hub in Latin America cluster around the Panama Canal. It also has the largest financial center in Latin America.
Investment in Panama has become the main drivers of its GDP growth in recent years. Since 2004, FDI exceeded $1 Billion , a record for the country; since then it has been leading the Central American region in terms of amount of investment.
The main groups of goods imported into Panama belonged to the tariff headings of fuels, machines, mechanical devices and appliances, vehicles and their parts, machines and electrical devices, and pharmaceutical products.
The country's main commercial suppliers are the United States and China.
The most important exports in terms of FOB value (free on board) were bananas, fish meat and fish oil, coffee, beef, melon and clothing.
The destinations with the highest export value were the Netherlands and the United States.
Manzanillo International Terminal was built as a specialized container terminal. Over the years, this seaport has increased their services into the container segment with the following:
Additionally, MIT handles vehicles and rolling equipment, generally known as Roll on-Roll off (Ro-Ro); and Project Cargo.
The physical configuration of this seaport allows it to receive all these type of cargo, as well as Panamax and Post Panamax container vessels, Car Carriers (Ro-Ro) and general cargo vessels.
CCT is mainly dedicated to receive and handle containers. More than 75% is pure transshipment cargo. The terminal is appropriately equipped to handle the current volumes of arriving cargo, an existing idle capacity allows potential customers to bring cargo to the seaport and benefit of its closeness to the railroad terminal, a short distance by road.
Cristobal has a great potential to consolidate itself as an important node for containerized, bulk, liquid and general cargo at the Atlantic. Its accessibility to the canal and important maritime routes, the expansion programs on infrastructures and the investments plans on equipment and human resources are key elements that will generate more capability to handle larger volumes of cargo in a near future.
Balboa has changed from being two separate piers originally built for general cargo to a modern terminal capable of receiving up to three Neopanamax, a Panamax and a Feeder simultaneously. This port is equipped to handle containers, Ro-Ro, dry and liquid bulk, and general cargo.
PSA Panama International Terminal has been built mainly for containerized cargo. All the facilities for Customs, Oirsa Quarantine and AUPSA authorities are available on-site.
PSA Panama is part of the PSA International Group, one of the leading port groups worldwide. PSA participates in approximately 40 terminals in 16 countries throughout Asia, Europe and the Americas with ship operations in PSA Terminals at Singapore and Antwerp.
Tocumen International is located 24km east of Panama City. The two main roads that connect the City to Tocumen are the Domingo Diaz Avenue and the South Corridor. The areas surrounding the Airport have become very important industrial areas. Many companies are considering moving their warehouses and distribution centers near the airport in order to take full advantage of its connectivity close to logistics parks.
The airport is located in the Province of Chiriquí, in the David City, more than 400 km from Panama City.
Scarlett Martinez International Airport is located to the east of Rio Hato and 90 km from the Penonome City.
Located in the Panama Pacifico Special Economic Area, just 15 minutes from the center of Panama City and 1 hour from the Colon Free Zone in the City of Colon.
Located in the province of Colon.
The airport is located in what used to be American territory, right next to the Panama Canal Administration Building and the port of Balboa. It's geographic position gives it a lot of connectivity potential
There are a total of 18 Free Zones in Panama, of which 12 are currently active.
Within these there are 123 registered companies
Most of the companies installed in Free Zones are engaged in service activities with a concentration in the cities of Panama and Colon.
Free zones are specifically defined free enterprise zones, within which all the infrastructures, installations, buildings, support systems and services are developed, as well as the operational organization and administrative management that are necessary for them to be established.
The immediate objective of the free zones is to provide optimal conditions of operational efficiency and comparative advantages to guarantee established companies high levels of competitiveness in international markets.
In the free zones, natural or legal persons, national or foreign, dedicated to the following categories of activities may be established:
The City of Knowledge is an international community of academic organizations, technology companies and non-governmental organizations. This complex is managed by the foundation of the same name. It is a private, non-profit organization created in 1995.
The Panama Pacifico Area is one of the most important projects of the Panamanian Government that develops an international trade hub and attracts large multinational companies, logistics services, commerce and industry. The main objective of this Special Economic Area is the attraction of new direct foreign investment and the creation of jobs in Panama.
The main objective of Colon Free Zone is to promote international trade under a tax exempted work frame most of the commercial activities are wholesale oriented, and logistics and banking activities support them.
It is a commercial, tourist, industrial logistics and service area that seeks growth in the Barú region, Chiriquí province. Its privileged position, being on the border of Panama with Costa Rica, offers commercial benefits for the entire Central American region. I mean
It was built between 1959 and 1962 by the United States at a cost of US$20 million.
It was built to supplement the overcrowded Bridge of the Americas and to replace it as the carrier of the Pan-American Highway. Upon its opening in 2004, it became the second permanent crossing of the canal. Cost $120 million
The bridge is part of a local connection road (as yet unnamed) between Bolivar Highway in the East and the undeveloped Western area. It will replace the nearby Panamal Canal Ferry. It is the only bridge North of the Culebra Cut . Cost $366 million
The metro is eventually planned to extend to 10 lines, plus a branch line to the Tocumen airport and ITSE, by 2040 or 2035. The first five lines will be metro lines, with the last three as tram lines, a metrocable-like system for San Miguelito and a monorail line for the planned city of Panama Pacifico, in Panama Oeste.
15,8 km (Lane 1)
21 km (Lane 2)
Lane 1 has 14
Lane 2 has 16